GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit(IPT)

free and open access to biodiversity data

University of Amsterdam (NL) - Páramo vegetation research, Western Andean Cordillera

Latest version published by University of Amsterdam / IBED on Aug 14, 2017 University of Amsterdam / IBED

The Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED) from University of Amsterdam (UvA) has been working on the Paramos of Colombia since 1970, collecting information on different aspects of plant ecology. The Western Cordillera dataset is generated from 5 sources: 1. A study about the paramo vegetation in the Nariño volcanoes, Orlando Rangel-Ch and Clara Ariza published in 2000. 2. A study by Helmut Sturm and Orlando Rangel in 1985 about the ecology of andean paramos, in the volcanoes of Cumbal and Chiles. 3 and 4. The field data from professor Antoine Cleef (1984) with Sonia Salamanca under the ECOANDES project (Tatama transect), collected in the upper part of Tatama massif. Also data collected (in 1983) under the same project by T. van der Hammen, O. Rangel and A. Cleef and published in a study of the paramo vegetation of the Tatama massif in 2005. 5. A study about sinecology, diversity and conservation of Andean vegetation in Argelia, Cauca published in 1995 by M.L. Becking. All studies provide information on the occurrence and location of 2983 plant species from the Paramo in this area collected in 139 releves. For the purpose of the GBIF data-publishing, vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 2,983 records. 1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.

  • Occurrence (core)
  • MeasurementOrFact 

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 2,983 records in English (85 KB) - Update frequency: not planned
Metadata as an EML file download in English (16 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (17 KB)


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Rangel-Ch., O and Ariza N. C. 2000. La vegetacion paramuna de los volcanes de Nariño. In: Colombia Diversidad Biotica III, la región de Vida paramuna de Colombia. Rangel-Ch. J.O. 2000. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Editorial Unibiblios. Bogotá, Colombia.


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is University of Amsterdam / IBED. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 39b07c5d-caa9-4118-b803-290d667cdd5e.  University of Amsterdam / IBED publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Netherlands Biodiversity Information Facility.


Colombia Andean Paramos Tatama Frontino Galeras; Chiles; Cumbal volcanos Páramo vegetation Altitude Réleve method Braun-Blanquet method Conservation Diversity; Occurrence; Observation


Who created the resource:

Antoine M. Cleef
University of Amsterdam Science park 904 NL-1098HX Amsterdam Noord-Holland NL

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Antoine M. Cleef
University of Amsterdam Science park 904 NL-1098HX Amsterdam Noord-Holland NL

Who filled in the metadata:

Paola Reyes
Research Assistent
NLBIF, IBED, University of Amsterdam Science Park 904 NL-1098HX Amsterdam Noord-Hollland NL

Who else was associated with the resource:

Henk de Vries
Node Manager
NLBIF P.O. Box 9517 NL-2300 AA Leiden Zuid-Holland NL +31.71.7519362

Geographic Coverage

The western cordillera starts at Nudo de los Pastos (Nariño) and it goes along the Pacific coast and ends up splitting at three small mountains called from west to east Abibe, San Jerónimo, and Ayapel (Antioquia). It is the shortest cordillera and the second in extension with 1095 km, the surface covers 76000 km2. The highest point is found in the south of the mountain range at Cumbal Volcano that reaches 4764 meters above sea level. At west, it delimits with the Pacific plain and at east with the valley of Cauca River. The data was collected in the municipalities of Nariño, Cauca, Risaralda and Choco. the It includes the Tatama-Frontino complex as well as the volcanos of Chiles, Cumbal and Galeras. The altitudinal range of the data varies from 2860 m.a.s.l. up to 4100 m.a.s.l.

Bounding Coordinates South West [0.8, -78.12], North East [7.42, -75.87]

Taxonomic Coverage

All plants identified to species level. Vegetation including phanerogams, bryophytes and lichens.

Kingdom  Plantae (Phanerogams),  Plantae (Bryophytes),  Fungi (Lichens)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1977-01-01 / 1992-01-01

Project Data

No Description available

Title The data is originated from 4 sources, not from a single project. 1. Paramo vegetation in the Nariño volcanoes, Rangel-Ch O and C. Ariza, 2000. 2. Ecology of andean paramos (Cumbal and Chiles volcanoes) by Sturm H. and O. Rangel, 1985. 3 and 4. ECOANDES project vol.6 (Tatama transect), 2005. 5. Sinecology, diversity and conservation of Andean vegetation in Argelia, Cauca, 1995 by M.L. Becking.
Funding Rangel, O. and Ariza C., 2000. Literature study funded by Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN)-Universidad Nacional De Colombia. Sturm H., and O. Rangel 1985, funded by: Universidad Nacional de Colombia Insituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN) from Universidad Nacional de Colombia Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogota The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Fondo Colombiano de Insvestigaciones Cientificas (COLCIENCIAS) Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) Dierikx L. and M. Kaandorp, 1986 funded by University of Amsterdam (Werkgroep Studiereizen Ontwikkelingslanden (WSO), The Hague and the Vakgroep Bijzondere Plankunde. ECOANDES project funded by: Insituto geografico "Agustin Codazzi" (Colombia), Insituto de Ciencias Naturales-ICN from Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) and Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research-WOTRO (Grant No. W84-188). M.L. Becking, 1995. Funded by: Treub Fonds, Paramillos phase I, The Netherlands. Hugo de Vries fonds, Paramillos phase II, The Netherlands Proyecto Biopacifico, Colombia Fondo FEN, Colombia
Study Area Description The area includes the paramo complex Chiles - Cumbal (Chiles, Cumbal, Azufral volcanoes), also the Galeras volcano in the Nariño province. And the Tatama - Frontino complex, also the Paramillos in Argelia, in the provinces of Cauca, Choco and Risaralda. The volcanoes of Cumbal (4760m), Chiles (4764m), Azufral (4070m)and Galeras (4276m) are located in the municipalities of Cumbal, Chiles, Tuquerres and Pasto, Sandona, Consaca and Yacuanquer,Florida, Ancuya, Tangua, El Encanto, Guaitaerilla, Tuquerres, Guachucal and Carlosama. For the Tatama area, it includes the paramo located on the upper part of the Tatama massif (4100m) which is placed in the central part of the western cordillera. The paramo is located along the border of the provinces of Risaralda and Choco. The vegetation study in the Cauca province, had a focus in the Cerro Plateado in de municipality of Argelia. Particularly in the high watershed of the Plateado river (which joints the San Juan de Micay rivers) The vegetation studied included species from middle paramo, subparamo and superparamo ecosystems. With releves of zonal, extrazonal and azonal paramo vegetation. At the time of studies most of the paramo vegetation in the area was not known.
Design Description The method used for paramo vegetation sampling was based on the Braun-Blanquet or Zürich-Montpellier schools which take the relevé as the main sampling unit. The releves were made of zonal and azonal paramo vegetation. The Braun-Blanquet method is based on dominant species that are grouped in associations and then at a higher level in alliances. This is the standard methodology used in Europe, SouthAfrica, United States, Japan and in the world in general. One of the final goals of the methodology mainly in Europe is to get to nature conservation, which is also the goal in the Colombian paramos.

The personnel involved in the project:

Point Of Contact
Antoine Cleef

Sampling Methods

The vegetation sampling was done by the relevé method following the Braun-Blanquet principles. The relevé is a list of the plants in a delimited plot of vegetation, with information on species cover and on substrate and other abiotic features in the plot to make as complete as possible description in terms of community composition. Different releves were done at different altitudes in the Paramo. The community vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.

Study Extent The study was done in the paramo of the volcanoes of Cumbal, Chiles, Azufral and Galeras. For the Tatama area, it includes the paramo located on the upper part of the Tatama massif (4100m) which is placed in the central part of the western cordillera. It includes the Tatama Cerro, El Encanato, Las Brisas, Las Mirlas, Don Pepe, Valle de los Lagos, Pantano rojo and San Francisco. The area is part of the National Natural Park Tatamá. The vegetation study in the Cauca province, had a focus in the Cerro Plateado in the municipality of Argelia. Particularly in the high watershed of the San Juan de Micay river which is Plateado river. The sampling campaigns for studies were done between 1977 and 1992.
Quality Control The data stored in TurboVeg was checked to identify errors in the information or gaps needed to be filled. The two main fields identified to be checked/completed were the georeference data (including precision) and the validation of the taxonomy of each species. The georeference information still needs to be completed.

Method step description:

  1. Releve data was stored in the software TurboVeg and then exported into species occurrence data. The species list used in TurboVeg was checked by an expert to confirm the valid taxonomy (taking into account taxonomy changes, synonyms, etc)(Guido van Reenen, paramo species list). This list was cross-checked with The Plant List (, for the period July 2011 until February 2013 (during this time frame the names where the accepted). A big part of the records are still lacking a georeference with its precision estimation. Also the specific habitat indication needs to be done.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Sturm H., O. Rangel. 1985. Ecologia de los Paramos Andinos: una visión preliminar integrada. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogota. 292p. n/a
  2. Becking, M.L. 1995. Sinecologia, diversidad y conservacion de la vegetacion altoandina en el sur de la Cordillera Occidental, Argelia, Cauca. Informe Final. Fondo FEN-Colombia - Proyecto Biopacifico. Popayan, Colombia. 57p. n/a
  3. Cleef, A., Rangel, O. Salamanca, S., Ariza, C and G. van Reenen. 2005. La vegetacion del paramo del Macizo de Tatamá, Cordillera Occidental, Colombia. In: La Cordillera Occidental Colombiana, transecto Tatama. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems, Vol. 6. van der Hammen, Rangel O and A. Cleef (eds). J. Cramer. Berlin. 972p. ISBN 3-443-50028-5

Additional Metadata

Purpose Purpose 1: Data in TurboVeg Purpose 2: data converted to species occurrence. Data repatriation to Colombia to be used in actual research.
Alternative Identifiers 39b07c5d-caa9-4118-b803-290d667cdd5e