GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit(IPT)

free and open access to biodiversity data

University of Amsterdam (NL) - Páramo Vegetation Research, paramo in the Sabana de Bogota area, Colombia

Latest version published by University of Amsterdam / IBED on Aug 14, 2017 University of Amsterdam / IBED

The Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED) from University of Amsterdam (UvA) has been working on the Paramos of Colombia since 1970, collecting information on different aspects of plant ecology. The data source is the field data from professor Antoine Cleef (collected in one field campaign in 1978) as part of his PhD thesis, finished in 1981. The study provides information on the occurrence and location of 90 plant species from the Paramo in this area. For the purpose of the GBIF data-publishing, vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 90 records. 1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.

  • Occurrence (core)
  • MeasurementOrFact 

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 90 records in English (8 KB) - Update frequency: not planned
Metadata as an EML file download in English (12 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (12 KB)


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Cleef. A.M. 1981. The vegetation of the paramos of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. PhD Thesis. State University of Utrecht. 320pp. Also published as Dissertationes Botanicae, Baud 61, J. Cramer, Vadyz and "The Cuaternary of Colombia", Vol.9.


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is University of Amsterdam / IBED. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 3953ab4f-958f-4943-8608-ca5da345447c.  University of Amsterdam / IBED publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Netherlands Biodiversity Information Facility.


Colombia Andean Paramos Eastern cordillera Sabana de Bogotá Páramo vegetation Altitude Réleve method Braun-Blanquet method Conservation; Occurrence; Observation


Who created the resource:

Antoine M. Cleef
University of Amsterdam Science Park 904 NL-1098HX Amsterdam Noord-Holland NL

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Antoine M. Cleef
University of Amsterdam Science Park 904 NL-1098HX Amsterdam Noord-Holland NL

Who filled in the metadata:

S. Paola Reyes
Research Assistent
NLBIF, IBED, University of Amsterdam Science Park 904 NL-1098HX Amsterdam Noord-Holland NL

Who else was associated with the resource:

Henk de Vries
Node Manager
NLBIF P.O. Box 9517 NL-2300 AA Leiden Zuid-Holland NL +31.71.7519362

Geographic Coverage

The paramo area is located in the "Sabana de Bogota" which is a plain or a high plateau located in the center of Colombia on the eastern cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The paramo is located close by the Chia municipality in de Cundinamarca province. The average altitude of the plateau is 2600m.a.s.l. and the dataset covers an altitudinal range from 2720m.a.s.l. up to 2950m.a.s.l.

Bounding Coordinates South West [4.52, -74.33], North East [5.22, -73.58]

Taxonomic Coverage

All plants identified to species level. Vegetation including phanerogams, bryophytes and lichens

Kingdom  Plantae (Phanerogams),  Plantae (Bryophytes),  Fungi (Lichens)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date 1981-01-01

Project Data

No Description available

Title Field data from Antoine Cleef as part of his PhD study.
Funding Institute of Systematic Botany at Utrecht University. Hugo de Vries Laboratoty at Institude for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics - IBED The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research-NWO, with the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research-WOTRO
Study Area Description The paramo locality for this data set is located in the Chia municipality in the Sabana de Bogotá (eastern cordillera) on the southern part of a larger plateau called Altiplano Cundiboyacense which is the largest plateau in the Colombian Andes.
Design Description The method used for paramo vegetation sampling was based on the Braun-Blanquet or Zürich-Montpellier schools which take the relevé as the main sampling unit. The Braun-Blanquet method is based on dominant species that are grouped in associations and then at a higher level in alliances. This is the standard methodology used in Europe, South Africa, United States, Japan and in the world in general. One of the final goals of the methodology mainly in Europe is to get to nature conservation, which is also the goal in the Colombian paramos.

The personnel involved in the project:

Antoine Cleef

Sampling Methods

The vegetation sampling was done by the relevé method following the Braun-Blanquet principles. The relevé is a list of the plants in a delimited plot of vegetation, with information on species cover and on substrate and other abiotic features in the plot. The vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.

Study Extent The study was done in the paramos area close to the municipality of Chia - Sabana de Bogota (Cundinamarca province) in september 1891.
Quality Control The original data was taken in field books, consisting either of a valid species name or a code of the specimen with collection of it for its later taxonomical identification (when identification on the field was not possible). In total 3 releves were produced consisting of a species list with its cover, date, location, altitude, slope, etc. The data of "Sabana de Bogotá-Chia" remained in paper until 2011, when the NLBIF financed digitizing the data. The data was digitized using the software TurboVeg, which is a software design for this type of vegetation information and then exported from community data into species occurrence data. The data stored in TurboVeg was checked to identify errors in the information or gaps needed to be filled. The two main fields identified to be checked/completed were the georeference data with its precision and the validation of the taxonomy of each species.

Method step description:

  1. Releve data was stored in the software TurboVeg and then exported into species occurrence data. The species list used in TurboVeg was checked by an expert to confirm the valid taxonomy (taking into account taxonomy changes, synonyms, etc). (Guido van Reenen, paramo species list. This list was cross-checked with The Plant List (, for the period July 2011 until February 2013 (during this time frame the names where the accepted). All the dataset lacks georeference and precison information. Also there is no specific habitat indication. In 2013 to improve de dataset quality, this data was completed as detail and precise as possible, but due to time restriction no georeference was given to the data and only a general indication for the habitat type was given (paramo).

Additional Metadata

Purpose Purpose 1: Data in TurboVeg Purpose 2: data converted to species occurrence. Data repatriation to Colombia to be used in actual research.
Alternative Identifiers 3953ab4f-958f-4943-8608-ca5da345447c