GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit(IPT)

free and open access to biodiversity data

University of Amsterdam (NL) - Páramo Vegetation Research, Paramos "Guantiva -La Rusia", Colombia

Latest version published by University of Amsterdam / IBED on Aug 14, 2017 University of Amsterdam / IBED

The Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED) from University of Amsterdam (UvA) has been working on the Paramos of Colombia since 1970, collecting information on different aspects of plant ecology. The dataset Paramos "Guantiva -La Rusia" is generated from the field data from professor Antoine Cleef (collected in one field campaign in 1973), as part of his PhD thesis (finished in 1981). The study provides information on the occurrence and location of 75 plant species from the Paramo in this area. For the purpose of the GBIF data-publishing, vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 75 records. 1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.

  • Occurrence (core)
  • MeasurementOrFact 

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 75 records in English (9 KB) - Update frequency: not planned
Metadata as an EML file download in English (14 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (14 KB)


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Cleef, A. 1981. The vegetation of the Páramos of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. PhD Thesis. Utrecht University.


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is University of Amsterdam / IBED. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 84881ef8-a565-4124-9102-253954c419f4.  University of Amsterdam / IBED publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Netherlands Biodiversity Information Facility.


Colombia Andean Paramos Paramo complex Guantiva - La Rusia Páramo vegetation Altitude Réleve method Braun-Blanquet method Conservation; Occurrence; Observation


Who created the resource:

Antoine M. Cleef
University of Amsterdam Science Park 904 NL-1098HX Amsterdam Noord-Holland NL

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Antoine M. Cleef
University of Amsterdam Science Park 904 NL-1098HX Amsterdam Noord-Holland NL

Who filled in the metadata:

S. Paola Reyes
Research Assistent
NLBIF, IBED, University of Amsterdam Science Park 904 NL-1098HX Amsterdam Noord-Holland NL

Who else was associated with the resource:

Henk de Vries
Node Manager
NLBIF P.O. Box 9517 NL-2300 AA Leiden Zuid-Holland NL +31.71.7519362

Geographic Coverage

The "Guantiva-La Rusia" paramo complex is located in the provinces of Santander and Boyaca, in the western side of the Eastern cordillera of Colombia. The "Guantiva-La Rusia" paramo ecosystems is located mainly in the municipalities of Encino, Onzaga y Coromoro in Santander. But also in municipalities of Boyaca such as Paipa, Duitama and Beteitiva and in the highest mountains of Encinos, Belen and Susacón. The alitudinal range of this paramo complex varies from 3100m a.s.l. up to 4280m a.s.l. and the dataset covers a range between 3100 m.a.s.l. until 4220m a.s.l.

Bounding Coordinates South West [5.96, -73.04], North East [6.25, -72.79]

Taxonomic Coverage

All plants identified to species level. Vegetation including phanerogams, bryophytes and lichens.

Kingdom  Plantae (Phanerogams),  Plantae (Bryophytes),  Fungi (Lichens)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1973-05-07 / 1973-05-08

Project Data

No Description available

Title Field data from Antoine Cleef as part of his PhD study.
Funding Institute of Systematic Botany at Utrecht University. Hugo de Vries Laboratoty at Institude for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics - IBED The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research-NWO, with the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research-WOTRO
Study Area Description The paramo complex Guantiva – La Rusia is located in the western slope of the western Cordillera in an altitudinal range between 3100m.a.s.l. and 4280m.a.s.l. This complex is located in the provinces of Boyaca and Santander and is part of an extensive corridor formed by paramos and andean forests, located northeast the Santuario de Fauna y Flora Iguaque (Villa de Leyva, Boyacá) up to the foothills of the canyon formed by the Chicamocha river (Onzaga, Santander). At the time of the study, the botanical exploration of the paramos was far from complete and little was known about the modern vegetation of the paramos. The southern part of the Guantiva paramo, northwest from Belen including the Cerro Pan de Azucar (4375m a.s.l.) was for the first time studied.
Design Description The method used for paramo vegetation sampling was based on the Braun-Blanquet or Zürich-Montpellier schools which take the relevé as the main sampling unit. The Braun-Blanquet method is based on dominant species that are grouped in associations and then at a higher level in alliances. This is the standard methodology used in Europe, South Africa, United States, Japan and in the world in general. One of the final goals of the methodology mainly in Europe is to get to nature conservation, which is also the goal in the Colombian paramos.

The personnel involved in the project:

Antoine Cleef

Sampling Methods

The vegetation sampling was done by the relevé method following the Braun-Blanquet principles. The relevé is a list of the plants in a delimited plot of vegetation, with information on species cover and on substrate and other abiotic features in the plot. The vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.

Study Extent The study was done in The "Guantiva - La Rusia" páramo complex. The data was collected in May 1973.
Quality Control The original data was taken in field books, consisting either of a valid species name or a code of the specimen with collection of it for its later taxonomical identification (when identification on the field was not possible). In total 6 releves were produced consisting of a species list with its cover, date, location, altitude, slope, etc. The data remained in paper until 2011, when the NLBIF financed digitizing the data. The data was digitized using the software TurboVeg, which is a software design for this type of vegetation information and then exported from community data into species occurrence data. The data stored in TurboVeg was checked to identify errors in the information or gaps needed to be filled. The two main fields identified to be checked/completed were the georeference data and the validation of the taxonomy of each species. Also the gaps in terms of the precision of the georeference data were filled.

Method step description:

  1. Releve data was stored in the software TurboVeg and then exported into species occurrence data. The species list used in TurboVeg was checked by an expert to confirm the valid taxonomy (taking into account taxonomy changes, synonyms, etc). (Guido van Reenen, paramo species list). This list was cross-checked with The Plant List (, for the period July 2011 until February 2013 (during this time frame the names where the accepted). All the "Guantiva - La Rusia" data was lacking a georeference and specific habitat indication. In 2013 to improve de dataset quality, this data was completed as detail and precise as possible, but due to time restriction only a general georeference was given to the data and a general indication for the habitat type was given. The georeference data assigned to the data set was based in google maps, where the paramos NW from Belen, the lagoon Laguna Grande, the locality known as vereda San Jose de la Montana and the pan de Azucar peak where taked into account to stablish a central point as a georeference and to estimate the precision (calculated as the longest distance from this point to the complex borders). Also the altitude range for the dataset was considered when the georeference was given. The original data was checked (data in paper) trying to find extra information on the locality and the listed point where founded. Also to complete the geographic coverage and the study extend recent literature was used to get info about the paramo complex. The most recent document available for Colombia is the "Atlas de Paramos de Colombia" published in 2007 and available online at

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Cleef. A.M. 1981. The vegetation of the paramos of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. PhD Thesis. State University of Utrecht. 320pp. Also published as Dissertationes Botanicae, Baud 61, J. Cramer, Vadyz and "The Cuaternary of Colombia", Vol.9.
  2. Morales M., Otero J., Van der Hammen T., Torres A., Cadena C., Pedraza C., Rodríguez N., Franco C., Betancourth J.C., Olaya E., Posada E. y Cárdenas L. 2007. Atlas de páramos de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. Bogotá, D. C. 208 p. ISBN 958-8151-91-5

Additional Metadata

Purpose Purpose 1: Data in TurboVeg Purpose 2: data converted to species occurrence. Data repatriation to Colombia to be used in actual research.
Alternative Identifiers 84881ef8-a565-4124-9102-253954c419f4